Chile was the first country in the world to broadly implement neoliberal educational reforms. The initial reforms of the 1980s, implemented during the military dictatorship, have left the country with a legacy difficult to overcome. Responses to ongoing reform efforts have varied, but resistance from teachers, students, and local communities have marked debates in education in recent years. Despite the pressure to preserve the public sector, recent reforms may provide the final mechanisms by which to complete the phasing out of public education in Chile, as those fearing the imminent demise of public education must scramble for strategies of effective advocacy.